1290 - 1360
Monetary manipulations, in particular to finance royal spending
In France, in particular during the reign of King Philip IV the Fair (1285−1314). In France, in order to finance royal spending but also to facilitate trade, King Philip IV the Fair (who reigned from 1285 to 1314) conducted a series of currency manipulations by creating new currencies and by reducing their metal content without changing their face value. These manipulations continued throughout the first half of the 14th century, to finance military spending brought about by the Hundred Years' War.