Emergence of lending and writing, initially used for accounting
Emergence of writing in Sumer in the Middle East (3300 BC), then in Egypt (3000 BC), China (1300 BC) and Mexico (600 BC). Writing appeared in four civilizations that had all started farming and breeding from an early stage: in Sumer in the Middle East (3300 BC), then in Egypt (3000 BC), China (1300 BC) and Mexico (600 BC). Indeed, farming and rearing imply the existence of a surplus that can be stored and traded with other economic players engaged in other activities. In some societies, this phenomenon went hand in hand with the emergence of centralised political institutions, which led to the appearance and use of writing, in particular for accounting and lending purposes. Writing then progressively spread throughout the world from these centres through trade.