Article 1 – Website editor

This website is edited by :

Direction Cité de l’Économie et de la Monnaie
Banque de France
48 - 50, rue Notre-Dame-des-Victoires 75002 Paris

Editorial Director:

Marc-Olivier Strauss-Kahn - General director

Editorial Manager:

Philippe Bonzom - Project director advisor


The Cité de l’Économie et de la Monnaie website is hosted by the company :
80, quai de Voltaire, 95877 Bezons, France

The portal site, its different functions and its graphic presentation were designed by the firm  Nice to meet you. This company was selected after a tender procedure initiated in 2010 by the Cité de l’Économie et de la Monnaie.



Article 2 – Personal data

2.1 The use of personal data collected on the website

The portal site of the Cité de l’Économie et de la Monnaie processes personal data in several ways for the purpose of ensuring the communication and exchange of information with the site’s visitors and their participation in discussion forums. These processes allow the Cité de l’Économie et de la Monnaie to :

- reply to written requests from the Contact Form;
- send out a periodic Newsletter;
- identify, in compliance with the provisions of Article 6 - II of the Law on Confidence in the Digital Economy, the authors of messages reacting to the contents published on the Cité de l’Économie et de la Monnaie website;
- measure the website’s audience (Google Analytics).

The Cité de l’Économie et de la Monnaie website only collects voluntarily entered information such as site visitors’ email addresses and/or names in order to allow visitors access to a number of additional functions of the website such as mediation service, Contact Form, transfer to a friend function, or diffusion of newsletters published by the website. However, visitors’ IPaddresses are automatically recorded by our systems in our server logs and by the systems of Google Inc.

2.2 How personal data collected on the website is used

The data collected via the newsletter and messages relating to the website’s contents are exclusively reserved for use by the Website’s technical manager. Personal information entered into the online Contact Form is handled by the Cité de l’Économie et de la Monnaie staff responsible for processing your request. Our visitors’ IPaddresses and connection/browser information collected by Google Inc. are processed by servers located in the United States and may be communicated or sold to third parties who process this data on behalf of Google Inc. and which may be located outside the European Union. Apart from our visitors’ I.P. addresses, all the personal data collected by Cité de l’Économie et de la Monnaie from its portal site is exclusively reserved for internal use and shall not be communicated, sold or in any way divulged to third parties.

2.3 Storage of personal data collected on the website

The Cité de l’Économie et de la Monnaie keeps personal data allowing visitors access to the functions of the Contact Form for two years, after which this data is completely deleted.

The data collected in the framework of the newsletter is immediately deleted when the subscriber requests cancellation via the automated online unsubscribe tool, and is not retained in any shape or form. The personal data of subscribers to our newsletter who do not request to be unsubscribed shall be kept for a maximum period of 10 years. The objective of this measure is to prevent our subscribers from experiencing frequent unsolicited subscription cancellations. The data collected from use of the function “send to a friend” is immediately deleted and no copies are retained. Concerning the conservation of data collected by our audience measurement tool, Google Analytics, we suggest you consult the data privacy policy of Google Inc.

The Cité de l’Économie et de la Monnaie guarantees the confidentiality of the information recorded via its website. The names and addresses of registered users are not visible at any moment, unless a user decides to sign an article in the body of a text or uses his/her real name as a user name.

2.4 Access, modification and deletion rights

In accordance with Law No. 78-17 of 6 January 1978 on “Information Technology and Civil Liberties”, all users of this website are entitled to access, rectify, modify, legally oppose and delete any personal data collected by the site and are entitled to request that all their contributions to the site’s forums or reactions to articles published on the website be presented anonymously.

You may exercise this right by contacting us via our Contact Form or by sending a letter to: Cité de l’Économie et de la Monnaie - Banque de France 29 rue des pyramides 75001 Paris.

Your identity will naturally be checked before you are given access to your personal data and before your corrections are entered into our system.



Article 3 - Cookies

3.1 Utilisation of cookies by the website

No cookies are recorded during your visit to our website. Only your electronic address may be recorded. It is kept just long enough to allow the processing of your mail. It is only used by the Cité de l’Économie et de la Monnaie, and the Cité de l’Économie et de la Monnaie undertakes not to sell or transfer it to any third party whatsoever.

3.2 Session Cookie used for statistical purposes

For reasons relating to the technology used by one of our service providers, visits to our website engender, wherever possible, the use of a session cookie for the purposes of statistical analysis and website audience measurement. You may however disable this cookie at any time by using the configuration options of your computer’s browser.

In accordance with Article 8.1 of the conditions of use of the Google Analytics service, we hereby draw our visitors’ attentions to the following declaration :

“This site uses Google Analytics, a website analysis service provided by Google Inc. (“Google”). Google Analytics uses cookies, which are text files placed on your computer, to help the internet site to analyse how the site is used by its users. The data generated by these cookies concerning your use of the site (including your IPaddress) is transferred and stored by Google to servers located in the United States. Google will use this information to assess your use of the site, compile reports on the activity of the site for its publisher and provide other services relating to the activity of the site and internet use. Google may communicate this data to third parties if legally obliged to do so or when third parties are permitted to process such data on behalf of Google, including, notably, the publisher of this site. Google will not add your IP address to any other data held by Google. You may disable the use of cookies by selecting the appropriate configuration of your browser. However, such disabling might prevent you from using certain functions on this site. By using this internet site, you expressly consent to the processing of your nominative data by Google under the conditions and for the purposes described above.”




Article 4 – Intellectual Property

4.1 Site engine and templates

The portal site of the Cité de l’Économie et de la Monnaie has been created with the Système de Publication pour l’Internet (SPIP), a French language software programme for the management and publication of editorial contents on internet, freely available under the GNU licence - General Public Licence (GPL).

Certain additional modules or plug-ins created in the framework of the development of this site are available under GPL and may be re-used and freely distributed under the same conditions of use, in accordance with the provisions of this licence.

The templates used on this portal site are subject to the legislation in force, are copyright protected and remain the exclusive property of the Cité de l’Économie et de la Monnaie.

4.2 Contents

The contents of the Cité de l’Économie et de la Monnaie site is subject to the applicable copyright legislation and is the exclusive property of the Cité de l’Économie et de la Monnaie. Any reproduction or re-diffusion of all or part of its contents is subject to the express, written prior authorisation from the Cité de l’Économie et de la Monnaie. You may request such authorisation detailing exactly which contents you wish to reproduce and the format in which you intend to reproduce it. Such requests can be communicated to

If the intended format is accessible on internet, we invite you to communicate its web address (URL). If not, we invite you to use the Contact Form to transfer the digital prints of the pages you wish to reproduce or, if necessary, to send us by postal letter the print-outs of the pages you wish to reproduce.

4.3 Photo credits

All texts, photos, videos, data, posters, logos, brands and other items displayed on the site are reserved and protected by the law of intellectual property, including copyright, neighboring rights, trademark rights and legislation on the protection of databases. Consequently no modification, distribution, reproduction, or other transaction documents, even partial, can not be made without the express permission of the author, in accordance with Articles of the French Intellectual Property regulations.

All images on the website have been authorized for publication.

The images used for the realization of this website comes from:

ADEME,, Archives de la Ville de Lausanne, Bank of England, Banque Centrale Européenne, Banque de France, Bibliothèque Municipale de Lyon, Bibliothèque Nationale de France, Bridgeman art Library, Bundesarchiv, CERN, Commission Européenne,, Dreamstime, EDF, Flickr, Gérard Mathieu, Globe Cartoon, Inrap, King Kullen, Leemage, Library and Archives Canada, Library of Congress, Musée de la Banque Centrale de la République Argentine, Musée Gadagne, NASA, Nationaal Archief Den Haag, Nations-Unies, Nixon Library, Numismondo, Organisation Internationale du Travail, Panoramico, Photothèque Assurance Maladie de Paris, Reuters, Roger-Viollet, Rue des Archives, Sinobanknote, Sveriges Riksbank, Universiteitsbibliotheek Gent, Uppsala University, Wikimedia Commons, Youtube.



Article 5 -Hyperlinks

5.1 Creation of links to web pages in our website

Links to the Cité de l’Économie et de la Monnaie’s internet home page or one of its web pages may be freely created as long as these links are not used for commercial or advertising purposes and as long as the wording “on the Cité de l’Économie et de la Monnaie site”, or any other equivalent or more precise indication is clearly visible in the link or next to it. This authorisation does not apply to internet sites whose content is of an illicit, violent, controversial, pornographic or xenophobic nature, or which are liable to offend members of the general public.

5.2 Creation of links to documents published on the Cité de l’Économie et de la Monnaie website

All direct or “deep” links to a document other than internet pages, whatever their form or content, are prohibited, except where the publishers of the website have given their express authorisation for such links to be established.

This prohibition includes notably, but not exclusively, any document of a graphic nature (such as .jpeg, .gif, .png), any multimedia or animated files (such as .avi, .mov, .wmv, .flv, .swf, .ppt, .pps), any text or editorial document (such as .txt, .doc, .docx, .rtf, .xls, .pdf), and any other document that cannot be read directly using a standard internet browser.

We therefore strongly recommend that you do not establish hyperlinks directly to the downloadable documents on our website, but rather to the internet pages containing the links to such documents.



Article 6 – Contents syndication

We have provided several RSS feeds (Really Simple Syndication) inXML format (Extended Markup Language) allowing you to automatically post the latest news and information to appear on the on your site. An RSS feeds is available for each section of the site.

A complete list of the RSS feeds offered by the Cité de l’Économie et de la Monnaie portal site can be accessed by clicking on the “Syndication” link at the bottom of each of the site’s pages.

The use of these RSS feeds by third parties is free as long as these flows are not used for commercial or advertising purposes.



Article 7 – Illegal or illicit data

In accordance with the Law of 21 June 2004 on Confidence in the Digital Economy, the website of the Cité de l’Économie et de la Monnaie allows any individual or visitor to inform the site’s owners/publishers of any content that could constitute one of the violations cited in the fifth and eighth paragraphs of Article 24 of the Law of 29 July 1881 on the Freedom of the Press, and Articles 227-23 and 227-24 of the French Penal Code. To inform us of any such inappropriate contents, please contact us using the Contact Form detailing the link to the contents you consider to be illegal or illicit.



Article 8 - Responsibility

The publishers and authors of the Cité de l’Économie et de la Monnaie website cannot be held liable for any errors or omissions in the information or data published or for any technical problems encountered on its site or any other site linked to the Cité de l’Économie et de la Monnaie website, or for any interpretation of the information published on these sites, or for any consequences resulting from their use.

Published on 17 August 2022.